Letters from Birmingham Jail


This letter was written by Martin Luther King Junior when he was in the Birmingham Jail, he was arrested for being the the Birmingham Campaign. WHile he was in jail he wrote pieces of his letters on newspaper and gave it to his lawyers.

“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”-Martin Luther King Junior


“Justice too long delayed, is justice denied.”-Martin Luther King Junior

Even thoguh Martin Luther King Junior had gotten arrested he still didn’t give up fighting for equality and freedom!

Work Cited:

“Letter from Birmingham Jail.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Feb. 2013. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.


Montgomery Bus Boycott


In December of 1955 Rosa Parks and officer of the NAACP refused to give up her seat at the front of the bus to a white man. After being told several times by the bus driver to move to the back of the bus and refusing she got arrested. Since she got arrested it sparked a boycott. Martin Luther King Junior lead the bus boycott.

“It was certainly time for somebody to stand up, so i refused to move.”- Rosa Parks

African Americans started finding other modes of transportation, and walking was the main one. African Americans didn’t ride the buses for 381 days. After all that time and boycotting the Supreme court ruled the segregated buses as unconstitutional.

Martin Luther King sat at the front of the bus and said, “It was a great ride.”

I can’t believe that African Americans stopped taking the bus and started walking everywhere. I can’t imagine walking everywhere I needed to go for 381 days. That’s just insane!

Work Cited:

Danzer, Gerald A. “Taking on Segregation.” The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 1999. 700-01. Print.

Little Rock Nine

ElizabethIn 1948 Arkansas became the first Southern state to admit African Americans to Universities. In 1957 nine African American students volunteered to be the first blacks at Little Rock High School. 8 of the 9 students got phone calls so they could be escorted to school for safety, but one girl Elizabeth Eckford didn’t have a phone so she went alone. She walked onto the campus where she was greeted by an angry mob including one woman who spat on her. The girl was traumatized!

If i was in her shoes I would forever be afraid of going to school. I can’t imagine what it must’ve felt like to be hated so much by strangers.

” I looked into the face of an old woman, and it seemed a kind face, but when i looked at her again, she spat on me.: – Elizabeth Eckford

“If we honestly acknowledged our painful but shared past, then we can have reconciliation.”-Elizabeth Eckford

She is very brave and i admire her for her courage!

Work Cited:

Danzer, Gerald A. “Taking on Segregation.” The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 1999. 699-700. Print.

Civil Rights Today

same sex marriage

One of todays biggest Civil Rights issues today is gay marriage. Many people are against, some are for it, and some don’t have an oppinion. As for me I feel like you should be able to love and marry who ever you want whether it’s a same sex marriage or opposite sex marriage.

Some states have made gay marriage legal,but many states haven’t and don’t want to. Personally I don’t get why people care, if you aren’t in the relationship then why does it matter?

Even though Barack Obama isn’t exactly for gay marriage he doesnt believe it is right to stop people from marrying who they want.
I like this quote because it’s very true! A lot of people are against just because they feel it isn’t right, but why should they care if they aren’t in that relationship.
Work Cited:
“Gay Marriage Quotes.” BrainyQuote. Xplore, 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

19th Amendment and the 1960/70’s Feminist

zzzzzzzThe 19th Amendment prohibits any United States citizen denied the right to vote based on sex. Woman fought long and hard to achieve suffrage.
“I declare to you that woman must not depend upon the protection of man, but must be taught to protect herself, and there I take my stand.”-Susan B. Anthony

“Men, their rights, and nothing more; women, their rights, and nothing less.” -Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony was one of the main leaders who wanted to fight for suffrage, she is a strong and powerful woman and we should thank her for getting us to where we are today. The 1960’s Feminists were women who were inspired to take a stand and fight for their rights, in the 1960s women were expected to stay at home andn cook and clean, but not all women wanted to do that. In order for them to be treated as equally as men they had to fight for their rights!

 Work Cited:”Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

“Susan B. Anthony Quotes.” BrainyQuote. Xplore, Dec.-Jan. 2012. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

“1960s Feminist Activities.” About.com Women’s History. About.com, Fall 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

AIM and Native American take over of Alcatraz

indianThe American Indian Movement was an organization formed to help address and solve the issues of poverty, treaty issues, police harrassment, etc. In 1971 they marched and protested which was known as “The Tail of Broken Treaties.” Since then they have led multiple protests and have inspired cultural renewal and so forth.When the Native Americans took over Alcatraz they occupied the island for 19 months! It eventually was put to and end by the US government.I don’t quite understand how the Native Americans were able to take over Alcatraz for 19 months! I can’t believe they weren’t stopped sooner!!!

“We invite the United States to acknowledge the justice of our claim. The choice now lies with the leaders of the American government – to use violence upon us as before to remove us from our Great Spirit’s land, or to institute a real change in its dealing with the American Indian. We do not fear your threat to charge us with crimes on our land. We and all other oppressed peoples would welcome spectacle of proof before the world of your title by genocide. Nevertheless, we seek peace.  ” Richard Oakes 

 Work Cited:

“American Indian Movement.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

“Occupation of Alcatraz.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

Chicano Movement and Impacts

Chicanos fightThe Chicano movement was an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement there goal was to achieve Mexican empowerment. The Chicano Movement also wanted to end discrimination. Early in the twentieth century, Mexican Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin American citizens was formed in 1929 and remains active today.

The Journal of American Historydescribes some of the negativity of the time in stating, “The conflict between Chicanos and the LAPD thus helped Mexican Americans develop a new political consciousness that included a greater sense of ethnic solidarity, an acknowledgment of their subordinated status in American society, and a greater determination to act politically, and perhaps even violently, to end that subordination. While most people of Mexican descent still refused to call themselves Chicanos, many had come to adopt many of the principles intrinsic in the concept of Chicanismo.”

They fough hard to make there voices heard. Everybody knew that blacks were fighting for freedom, but not many people took the time to listen or even care about Chicanos struggles..The impact they had was they led marches and made it clear that they wanted equality too and they achieved it because of the 14th Amendment.

Work Cited:”Chicano Movement.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Jan. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

Martin Luther King Junior, Malcolm X, and Rosa Parks

Civil Rights Activists

Martin Luther King Junior was an activist and leader in the African American Civil Rights Movement. He gave numerous speeches about reaching equality and freedom and even led a march that over 250,000 people participated in.

Malcolm X was an African American minister and human rights activist. He was a lot like Martin Luther King but instead of giving speeches that weren’t racist, Malcolm X spoke about black supremacy and put down whites. He was disliked by many people because of his racist attitude and therefore was assassinated.

Rosa Parks was an African American Civil Rights Activist she is known for being “the first civil rights lady” she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man and got arrested. After that African Americans Boycotted and stopped riding the buses until they were legally allowed to sit wherever they wanted on the bus.

Work Cited:

“Martin Luther King, Jr.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

 “Malcolm X.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

“Rosa Parks.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
“Rosa Parks Quotes.” BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

March on Washington

March on Washington

On August 28th, 1963 more than 250,000 people marched to the nation’s capital. They were all waiting for Martin Luther King Junior to arrive and deliever a speech. When he arrived he gave one of his most famous speeches called “I have a dream.” Two weeks after giving his powerful and moving speech he was assassinated.

It was a terrible loss and many people were grieving, but not too long after the Civil Rights Act was signed and it prohibited discrimination against race, religion, gender, etc. Many people believe that the Civil Rights Act was passed because of the brave and powerful Martin Luther King Junior.

I believe if Martin Luther King hadn’t come forward the African Americans would have turned towards violence as a way to get freedom. I think if Martin Luther King Junior wasn’t assassinated than we could’ve ended discrimination quicker.

Work Cited:

 Danzer, Gerald A. “The Triumphs of a Crusade.” Introduction. The Americans: Reconstruction through the 20th Century. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 1999. 707-08. Print.

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke


The Court ruled that admissions process of the Medical School at the University of California, at Davis was unconstitutional, they set aside 16 of the 100 seats for “Blacks,” “Chicanos,” “Asians,” and “American Indians” (and established a separate admissions process for those 16 spaces).

A smart white student Bakke applied to many medical schools and didnt get in because of his “age” even though he had one of the top 3 highest scores ever on the Medical College Admissions Test. After being denied admission because of his age Bakke took action and went to court in which they determined being denied entry into a University based on sex, race, or age was unconstitutional.

“His age was above their stated limit.”- University of Southern California


A Davis Faculity member from Bakke’s 1973 interview believed that he was a -“well-qualified candidate for admission whose main handicap is the unavoidable fact that he is now 33 years of age.”

I think it is unfair how he didnt get accepted when he had better scores than most of the applicants because he was 33 years old, that shows how times have changed because now you can go to college at any age.

Work Cited:
“Regents of the University of California v. Bakke.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Feb. 2013. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

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